Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Every IB Business and Management Past Paper Available FREE and Official

Each IB Business and Management Past Paper Available FREE and Official SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips On the off chance that you need to excel on your IB tests (which you ought to since acing them will get you school credits), you have to get ready like you would for any state sanctioned test, for example, the PSAT, SAT or ACT, with training tests. Getting ready for the IB tests doesn't just mean evaluating your class notes. You should utilize IB Business and Management past papers as training tests with the goal that you feel arranged for the length, organization, and sorts of inquiries posed. In this article, I'll furnish you with connections to IB Business and Management past papers, free and authority. Moreover, I'll offer guidance on the most proficient method to utilize them to pro your genuine IB test. Free IB Business and Management Past Papers Links The IB has gotten serious about unlawfully transferred genuine past papers over the most recent couple of years, such a large number of past sources are not, at this point accessible. Exacerbating this issue, IB so far has not given any free example IB Business and Management test papers on its site. We'll make certain to refresh this article when they do with joins, however! While scanning for nothing IB Business and Management papers online may at present turn up certain outcomes, we don't suggest utilizing them, as there's no assurance those papers are genuine past IB papers. Rather, we suggest utilizing the generally economical authority paid IB past papers and markschemes for additional training. Paid IB Business and Management Past Papers Links To download protected and official IB Business and Management SL/HL past papers and markschemes, buy them from the Follet IBO store legitimately. As of now, the IBO store has two arrangements of English-language IB Business and Management SL past papers and IB Business and Management HL past papers in the new, 2016-test group: one set from May 2017 and one from November 2016. (There are few past IB Business Management papers in French and Spanish accessible on the store also.) Note: The IBO sells each paper and imprint conspire independently (boo); an individual paper or imprint plot costs $3 (or about  £2.50). This implies a full test (with all papers and imprint plans) will cost about $12. Purchasing everything on the site from 2015 to 2017 will be exorbitant (also in various dialects), so we suggest you just purchase the two latest (November 2016 and May 2017) past papers. These past papers will be the most like your test, and two tests will give a lot of training. The most effective method to Use These Exams An IB Business and Management test will take you 3 hours for SL or 4.5 hours for HL. In the event that you will contribute that much time, you should be expanding your gaining from these tests. To ensure you capitalize on each training test, adhere to these guidelines: #1: Split the Test Over Two Days In May 2019, the IBO planned Paper 1 and Papers 2 on two separate days when an end of the week. On the off chance that conceivable, you should duplicate this timetable precisely with the goal that your training is reasonable. In any event, ensure you are taking the two papers on two distinct days. Clutching the data over various days (with an end of the week in the middle of!) makes it hard to pack for this test. You have to have aced the IB Business and Management ideas and have the option to expound shrewdly on them. #2: Use Exact Timing. Ensure you time yourself so you constrain yourself to rehearse your pacing. The time permitted per paper is: Business and Management SL Paper 1-1 hour 15 minutes Paper 2-1 hour 45 minutes Business and Management HL Paper 1-2 hours 15 minutes Paper 2-2 hours 15 minutes Try not to wander from this planning, not even by a moment. You have to become accustomed to the real test timing. Likewise, you’ll get an expanded practice test score in the event that you permit yourself additional time. Don’t do it! Adhere to the genuine planning with the goal that you have a reasonable marker of your IB score. #3 (and the most significant): Review! In the wake of finishing all papers, audit your test with the imprint conspire. For what reason do you have to survey? Surveying encourages you make sense of what botches you are making or what data you don't know before you take the genuine IB Business and Management test. In the event that you don’t check your answers, you’ll commit similar errors on the real IB Business and Management test. Take some time (at least 60 minutes) to survey your answers. Taking one practice test with top to bottom survey is far better than stepping through 8 exams without audit. What’s Next? Become familiar with IB Business and Management and related themes: IB Business and Management Study Guide Profit for Assets: What It Is and How to Use It Look at where to discover past papers for your different classes: Each IB Biology Past Paper Available: Free and Official Where to Find IB Chemistry Past Papers - Free and Official Each IB Economics Past Paper Available: Free and Official Each IB English Past Paper Available: Free and Official Each IB Geography Past Paper Available: Free and Official Each IB History Past Paper Available: Free and Official Each IB Math Past Paper Available: Free and Official Where to Find IB Physics Past Papers - Free and Official Need to improve your SAT score by 160 or your ACT score by 4? We've composed a guide for each test about the main 5 systems you should use to have a taken shots at improving your score. Download it with the expectation of complimentary at this point:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

applications of technology essays

uses of innovation expositions A statement I heard commonly when I was in secondary school and which I currently realize follows back to Sir Francis Bacon, one of our soonest researcher or rationalists as they were then called, is the announcement Information Is Power. Today, I accept that the more full, progressively right explanation is to state, the utilization of information is power. The investigation of science, and innovation subjects will more extensive our chances throughout everyday life. As we keep on progressing to the 21st century-now lesser than 30 days away-we are very much aware that innovation is conceivably the most sweltering modern ware far and wide today. In the years ahead, it will be an undeniably basic factor in deciding the achievement or disappointment of organizations. It is the fuel a significant number of us are taking a gander at to assist us with winning this race to the 21st century. To do that, we should make innovation matter. In this paper I am going to share my innovation gauges. I attempt to concentrate on my new figures 10 years into the future - the principal decade of the 21st century, since that is the manner by which far most organizations should be looking forward. There has never been an unbiased or worth free, innovation. All advancements are power. They inspire monetary and social results in direct extent to their separation of the current economy and its foundations. I accept that advances, for example, biotechnology and hereditary designing, keen materials, the scaling down of hardware, and brilliant assembling frameworks, and controls, will be the most sultry innovations in the following decade. I am going to assemble a rundown of what I think as the best ten imaginative items that will result from those innovations. Number one on the rundown is something we call hereditary. There are pharmaceutical items that will originate from the huge hereditary research going on around the globe today. In ten years, we will have better approaches to treat a significant number of our ills - from sensitivities to ADIS. We may see the disclosure of new techniques for treatment... <!

Friday, August 21, 2020

Life of Gangsters

â€Å"Quick a coppers coming!† said Dominic, Ringleader of the looters. † I can't get this poop to begin up!† said Vincent. (Vinc) â€Å"Oi stop for the sake of the law!† hollered the cop. Now the cop was pursuing the Hi-Jackers like a projectile. He was so anxious to catch the law-restricting hoodlums. â€Å"Yes it's started,† yelled Vinc. â€Å"Run him over, he's attempting to mess us around!† Cried Dominic as loud as possible. The Car sponsored up like the speed of lightning and hit the Police official leaving him injured like a boneless pooch. â€Å"Bingo! Pleasant point huh? Asked Vinc. The burglars had a decent escape abandoning the police officer. The sun was setting and the view was delightful. The burglars were cruising towards a urban territory. â€Å"Dom where would you like to go now?† asked Vinc. â€Å"Lets take a brief trip and see Dred, I need report of weed.† Replied Clyde. They pulled up at an old destroyed carport. The carport resembled a corroded old skip there was an indication that said â€Å"Dred Motor Company.† The sign was going to tumble off it was hanging vertically. The looters headed inside and saw a major colossal figure. â€Å"Yo what do you need today boys?† asked the gigantic figure. â€Å"I simply need an ounce of weed,† said Dom. Dred pulled out a little straightforward pack with some cannabis inside it. â€Å"Is this enough mama kid Dom?† asked Dred. â€Å"Yeah that is enough,† said Dom Dom was going to get the sack, yet Dred requested for some cash first â€Å"Money First† said Dred. Dom went towards the vehicle and pulled out an automatic rifle. â€Å"Gimme the Flipin weed before I pass yo enormous ass over permanently!† Said Dom â€Å"Yo Dom you know im simply playing with you here take it its all yours† said Dred in a cautious voice. Vincent and Dominic drove off leaving not an impression in sight. Dom was occupied with moving up a spliff when Vinc pulled up at a gas station. Bonnie topped the tank off to the most extreme measure of petroleum. He was going to drive off when the businessperson came out and took steps to shoot in the event that they drove off. Dom came outside with his automatic rifle and fired the guiltless businessperson in his mind. When they were going to drive off, 10 squad cars and 3 mob vans encompassed the ways out. Clyde shot four of the cops. It was a limited escape, yet they made it. Mob vans and squad cars were pursuing them. With Vincent's Skilful driving the pair lost the cops. Hello Dom this vehicle is squashed man! We have to help another vehicle. At that point do it, yet ensure no cops are included. They moved toward a little very zone and saw a Nissan horizon. Dom this will do us pleasantly. Inside brief they drove off in a Nissan Skyline secretly. There, pleasant new vehicle and no cops, yet we are down and out. â€Å"How quick does this infant go?† asked Dominic. This one will do over 170mph. Fantastic! I realize somebody who sorts out road races. On the off chance that we enter this vehicle into a race we make certain to win! Dominic took out his cell phone and called a person called Hector. â€Å"Hector its me Dominic, I need some money. Are there any races going on?† asked Dominic â€Å"It's a great job you called me there is one today. Why what vehicle you got?† asked Hector. â€Å"I got a Nissan R34 Skyline.† â€Å"Meet me at the caf㠯⠿â ½ seven o'clock sharp.† Said Hector. Dominic and Vincent simply show up at the caf㠯⠿â ½, and meet Hector. â€Å"Hey Dom long time no observe and who's the other guy?† asked Hector. This is my man Vinc. Vinc this is Hector. Hector, Vinc is going to drive. Right at that point, how about we roll! There are three different folks who you will be dashing with. When Vinc took a privilege the cops were on their tail. They got Dominic and Vinc Furthermore, captured them on murder, amazing robbery auto and ownership of medications. They were condemned life and both kicked the bucket in jail.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Writing a Descriptive Essay - Why Do You Need To Start With An Objective?

Writing a Descriptive Essay - Why Do You Need To Start With An Objective?When writing a descriptive essay, the writer should always start by considering the subject of the essay. It is important to first determine the idea that the essay should address. It may also be helpful to discuss how the writer plans to reach their objective and how they will use those goals to help the reader understand the topic.In addition to having an objective, descriptive essay samples for grades 7 can be written in three sections or topics. Here are a few examples of how these sections or topics could be used:Subject of the Essay - How does the topic of the essay relate to the reader? The idea behind the topic is to show the readers how the author has taken the reader on a journey, or look at the topic from different angles. This can be a fun way to write a story or interest the reader. The topic should be interesting to the reader, because if it is not, then the writer is likely not using his best judg ment.Objective - What is the goal of the essay? In the objective section, the writer is attempting to make sure that the reader understands how the writer came to the conclusion of their argument. The purpose of the essay may include some kind of statement that clearly states what the essay is about.Writing Style - What format would the essay take? The most commonly used essay format is the paragraph, where the writer begins a paragraph with a sub-paragraph which elaborates and concludes the entire paragraph. Other formats include a sentence, headnote, or a footnote. The writer should take into consideration the type of essay that they will be writing so that they know which format would be best suited to them.Goal - How will the final conclusion of the essay be reached? The essay should help the reader to reach their own conclusions and be able to say why the writer feels as if they have stated the information correctly. The essay should also be able to reveal the audience's opinio n of the essay. The audience can be made up of friends, family, teachers, or anyone else.By considering the three sections or topics, the writer can come up with a more detailed essay that can address each one individually. The idea behind each of the sections is to show the reader how the writer sees the subject and the essay will show the audience that the essay is a very well written work.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Mosaic Of Diverse Cultures And Ethnic Backgrounds

Canada is known to be a mosaic of diverse cultures and ethnic backgrounds. In Canada’s relatively short lifetime, it has not instigated any wars; in combination with our peace-keeping approach to most discourse, this has gained the country the reputation of being a more â€Å"friendly† nation. The general amiability of Canadians is revered worldwide and our democratic society draws immigrants from around the globe to build lives here. With the amount of diversity we possess, it is necessary to broaden the scope of our teaching methods in order to meet the needs of a wider range of students. While it is imperative that we cater to the needs of more than one demographic, a lack of multiculturalism still pervades our schools and cascades outward to the population as a whole. The effects of racism have permeated modern culture to the point where it is seen on a regular basis; it is in the music we listen to and the television shows we watch. In order to remediate some of ou r societal flaws, change must begin in the educational system. As cited by Feng Hou and Garnett Picot (2014), aside from typical fluctuations, immigration to Canada has been in a state of increase since the 1980’s. This increase in diversity has not gone unnoticed in classrooms, however, there is still a lack of true multiculturalism. The question is, what is multiculturalism? The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines it as â€Å"a body of thought in political philosophy about the proper way to respond toShow MoreRelatedEssay on Multiculturalism in Canada661 Words   |  3 Pagesthe existence of a culturally diversified society where people from different backgrounds and races come and live together. However an insight of this integrated society reveals that everyone seems to have a different opinion on the issue of how this diverse community should operate. One of the countries of North America called the mosaic is Canada. It has earned this distinct name because of the mix of races, cultures and ethnicities residing in it. Cana das geographical features and its harshRead MoreEssay on The Canadian Mosaic Vs. The U.S. Melting Pot1707 Words   |  7 Pages Canada is internationally recognized as a culturally diverse nation that emphasizes the concept of â€Å"The Mosaic†. No other country in the world encompasses inhabitants from so many different backgrounds who exhibit strong loyalty towards Canada, while still preserving their cultural heritage. This is contrasted to the American ideal of the quot;Melting Potquot;, which attempts to shape all of their citizens into a set mold. Canada’s philosophy is believed to be more effective and respectful thanRead MoreThe Canadian Mosaic vs. the U.S. Melting Pot1710 Words   |  7 PagesCanada is internationally recognized as a culturally diverse nation that emphasizes the concept of The Mosaic. No other country in the world encompasses inhabitants from so many different backgrounds who exhibit strong loyalty towards Canada, while still preserving th eir cultural heritage. This is contrasted to the American ideal of the Melting Pot, which attempts to shape all of their citizens into a set mold. Canadas philosophy is believed to be more effective and respectful than that whichRead MoreFrom Melting Pot And Beautiful Mosaic1517 Words   |  7 PagesMelting Pot to Beautiful Mosaic Cara Carson University of Nebraska at Omaha Elizabeth Wessling TED 8000-502 July 23, 2015 â€Æ' From Melting Pot to Beautiful Mosaic President Jimmy Carter stated in his presidential debate with Ronald Reagan in 1976 that the United States of America has â€Å"become not a melting pot but a beautiful mosaic. Different people, different beliefs, different yearnings, different hopes, different dreams† (Commission on Presidential Debates, 1976). This â€Å"mosaic† of differences is notRead MoreMulticultural Education : A Truly Multicultural Mosaic1259 Words   |  6 Pagesof their gender, social class, and ethnic, racial, or cultural characteristics- should have an equal opportunity to learn in school, (Banks Banks, 2010, p. 3.) For centuries our country, the United States of America, has been known as the â€Å"melting pot† in a sense that our world was moving towards multiculturalism. Some see the old metaphor, the â€Å"melting pot† fading away within the last decade and has grown into a new term(s) like the â€Å"salad bowl† and â€Å"mosaic†. These two terms can best b e definedRead MoreCanadas Multicultural Dynamic1357 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernment began to acknowledge diversity within the country. This paper will argue that multiculturalism represents a qualitatively better approach to ethnic diversity than did the Canadian immigration and cultural policies that preceded it. Restricted immigration and aboriginal assimilation negatively affect the larger picture of Canadian culture in comparison to public policy supporting multiculturalism. The idea of Canada being a â€Å"multicultural† society has arguably been around since the country’sRead MoreCanad A Beneficial Thing1693 Words   |  7 Pagesmulticulturalism as an official policy. By doing this they accepted the values and dignity of all Canadian citizens regardless of their racial or ethnic backgrounds or religious beliefs. Rather than Canada seeing it’s self as a â€Å"Melting pot† like the Americans (where all cultures are expected to blend into one dominant culture), Canada sees itself as a cultural mosaic. Canadians have chosen to embark on the path of ‘multiculturalism’ that recognizes the importance of respecting, preserving and sharing culturalRead More Multiracial Students1044 Words   |  5 Pagesleprechaun. During lunch, she might be found enjoying some soul food, or eating a meal from south of the border. Around her could also be people from various cultural backgrounds, who she has no problem calling her friends. As perplexing as it seems, this is not an example of an identity crisis, but merely a reflection of the various cultures that can lie within one individual. â€Å"I love the fact that I’m of mixed heritage,† Corbett said. â€Å"I feel like I can relate to so many people, and not have to careRead MoreMulticultural Competence Of School Psychologists1031 Words   |  5 Pagesethics, and practice standards, school psychologists and other school personnel have been aware that an effective school professional is multiculturally competent and able to make sense of students’ sociocultural, socioracial, and sociopolitical backgrounds that present themselves within a classroom setting. Multiculturally competent professionals are informed as to which environmental, academic, and community factors combine to support all students’ learning and development across ages and abilitiesRead MoreThe United States has Changed from a Melting Pot to a Vast Culture with Varying Racial Backgrounds602 Words   |  3 PagesThe United States has Changed from a Melting Pot to a Vast Culture with Varying Racial Backgrounds The United States, created by blending or melting many cultures together into one common man, known as an American. Modern communication and transportation accelerate mass migrations from one continent . . . to the United States (Schlesinger 21). Ethnic and racial diversity was bound to happen in the American society. As immigration began to explode, . . . a cult of ethnicity erupted both between

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Dark Side of Advertising - 1741 Words

The Dark Side of Advertising Woolworths, the Fresh Food People! Oh, what a feeling, Toyota! I’m lovin’ it! †¨These are the indestructible jingles that the world of advertising has managed to drum into our heads, over the course of time. Effective? Yes. Escapable? No. Teenagers in contemporary society are exposed to up to 3000 ads per day, meaning that we are constantly bombarded with advertisements from the minute we step outside our bedroom door. As promotional agencies increase their exposure, they have changed the typical nature of advertising and have become more affluent with the strategies and techniques they employ. Advertising has shifted into an industry of its own and is clearly shaping, modifying and defining the moral†¦show more content†¦A quote by Fred Allen exclaims,â€Å"Advertising is 85% confusion, 15% commission.† Advertisements are intended to persuade customers into purchasing products, regardless of consumer complacency. They don’t care about how we feel - as long as we continue to swipe the credit card they will have no concern for consumers. Teens account for US $1 billion in e-commerce spending, meaning that young adults are at a high risk of careless online advertising manipulation by companies. Photoshopping techniques and surgically enhanced bodies are at the heart of modern advertising. The deceiving nature of connotation is casting a gloomy eclipse over advertising, along with the deceit usually automatically attached to the promotion. We are becoming a hyper-stimulated society, obsessed with making purchases because we risk being unworthy or unpopular if we don’t possess a particular product. Consumers are manipulated into a living popularity contest due to the derogatory effects of advertising. James Collins once stated, â€Å"A magazine is simply a device to induce people to read advertising†. With their high number of advertisements, magazines are the number one culprits of photo editing, with almost all of their feature photos or promotions undergoing touch-ups. Did you know that most Victoria’s Secret models in promotions are a size 2, with a 34†-36† bust, 23† waist and 34†-35† hips? Not to mention the hours of r etouching, cropping and editing thatShow MoreRelatedBan On Tobacco Advertisements By The Government Of India1444 Words   |  6 Pagesshape or form and on February 6, 2001 the government of India (the third largest producer of tobacco in the world) dropped a bombshell on the tobacco industry when it too wanted to start its own band. The government would ban tobacco companies from advertising and sponsoring sports and cultural events all together (Case Studies, n.d.). India like many other European countries viewed the negative effects of smoking on its population and had boldly set out to ban tobacco ads from the public for three majorRead MoreThe Ban On Advertising Tobacco Products885 Words   |  4 PagesThe ban put on advertising tobacco products in India has caused a lot of debates. Some say it violates the constitution, others say it saves lives. Each side sets a valid argument, but which side is right? These bans do not only exist in India. They have been put into action in many different countries as well. Tobacco use kills 5.4 million people a year, averaging at about half of all smokers. (W.H.O.-Facts) I think that everyone is aware of how bad tobacco use is for your health. What peopleRead MoreObesity And Its Effects On Society923 Words   |  4 PagesIn a country that has grown the reputation of being overly unhealthy, in-productively is only one side of the coin. The other side is dieting, and how it has become vastly intertwined with American culture. Almost anything informatively health-related will state the harrowing consequences of eating poorly. However, every article, video, research paper, and advertisement made to inform people of the results of poor dieting — is almost irrelevant, for there are an unanimously greater number of advertisementsRead MoreI m A Mac Campaign1700 Words   |  7 Pagesduo fight for almost two years now, but have you picked a side, are you still on the fence or could you not be bothered? The twosome at the forefront of the ‘Get a Mac’ campaign have made it far from easy to ignore, in fact this campaign is proving to be one of a kind. This contemporary campaign has broken barriers and garnered success economically, culturally and internationally all the while reinforcing its brand and image through advertising tactics despite falling subject to scrutiny. As much asRead MoreRhetorical Strategies for Distinct Image Ads in Same Product1643 Words   |  7 PagesRhetorical Strategies for Distinct Image Ads in Same product Advertisement is a form of communication intended to persuade consumers to purchase or to accept the ideas, products or services. Advertising persuasion strategy not only has logic, but also has a unique artistry that advertisers use to find many effective persuasions for various kinds of target markets. Different ways to persuade customers for the same product could have distinct effects by analyzing targets, appeal methods, and anglesRead MoreThe Effects Of Video Games On Children And Families Essay1490 Words   |  6 Pagesadvertisements, ignorance is common. Remember all those classic systems and games from companies like Nintendo and Atari? They are often viewed as light fond childhood memories, but what most people do not remember or choose not to remember is the dark side of these 80’s and 90’s golden age games and their marketing strategies. From loving mothers to intimate lovers, these advertisements might be a bit different from what most people remember. If the record were to be set straight and light was shedRead MoreEssay about Critical Evaluation of a Magazine Advertisement898 Words   |  4 Pagesperson, we must wear this perfume which relates to using pathos. Also, there are very few colors in this picture. The simplicity of this person and picture makes the perfume bottle stand out that much more. The model is very pale with extremely dark hair and very powerful red lips and nails. The colors on the woman are the same you can see on the bottle which ties them both together. Red, being a very powerful color, makes the bottle stand out. In this advertisement the model is naked whichRead MoreEssay on The Popularity of Advertising1324 Words   |  6 PagesThe Popularity of Advertising Advertising is increasing so quickly that it has become unavoidable. Where-ever you go, you can find advertising. For example, it can be found on Trains, Buses, Buildings, Newspapers, Television and even on the side of Football pitches. Advertising also uses a lot of methods, such as Celebrity endorsement, Exotic places, Humour, Catchy slogans and Sex. Advertising has to be strictly decent, legal and clean. All adverts have to be checkedRead MoreE Commerce And The Internet1252 Words   |  6 Pagespostage and printing costs, among many others, can be reduced. Companies could use the internet to search for lowest price materials for their products. With the extra funding from cutting cost, the company could maximize their advertising and marketing strategies.  ¡Ã‚ °Online advertising has been growing steadily since early 2003 and is on track to surpass the $10 billion annual spending level for the first time in history. Research firm eMarketer predicts that more than $12 billion will be spent this yearRead MoreEssay about Advertising Ethics1274 Words   |  6 Pages The age of advertising today is not what it used to be years ago. Pharmaceutical companies are spending on average billions of dollars to market their drugs directly to the consumers. With this comes a potential harm to some consumers due to the fact that they feel like they are free to ask for anything that may stop the symptoms they have. Should the FDA take a stand in putting a stop to how certain drugs are marketed, or just continue to let it get out of control? Who should be able to control

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Essay about Foundations of Contract Law

Question 1: Jamie is retiring from the catering business. His neighbours daughter Sonia has just finished college and is about to open up a restaurant. Last Monday Jamie told Sonia he was selling his catering equipment and was prepared to let her have everything for 5,000 but that he wanted an answer by Friday as one of his friends was also interested. On Wednesday Sonia telephoned Jamie to ask whether she could have 2 months to pay. Jamie was not in so she left a message on his answer machine asking for 2 months to pay. On Wednesday, Jamie posted a letter to Sonia saying he had sold the equipment to his friend. He did not pick up his answer machine messages. As Sonia had heard nothing and was unable to get hold of Jamie on the phone, she wrote out a cheque for 5,000 and put it in an envelope with a note saying, Here is 5,000 for the catering equipment and put it in the post on Thursday. On Friday Sonia saw Jamies wife and Sonia asked if her letter and cheque had arrived. Jamies wife said no a nd hadnt she received Jamies letter saying had already sold the equipment to his friend. The letter from Jamie did not arrive until Saturday. Advise Sonia as to whether she has a contract with Jamie for the equipment. Answer1: The issue that needs to be decided in the present case is that an offer was made by Jamie to his neighbor's daughter Sonia to sell all his catering equipment for $5000. Jamie also told Sonia that she should reply to is offered by Friday because one of his friends was also interested in purchasing the catering equipment from him. On Wednesday, Sonia made a telephone call to Jamie in order to ask if she could have two months to pay the amount. Due to the reason that Jamie was not them, Sonia left a message on Jamie's answering machine. For the other hand, Jamie posted a letter to Sonia on Wednesday in which he informed Sonia that he has sold the catering equipment to his friend. By this time, Jamie had not picked up the messages on his answering machine. On the other hand, when Sonia did not hear from Jamie, she wrote a cheque for $5000 and put the same in post on Thursday. Therefore, the issue that needs to be decided in the present case is if there is a contract between Sonia and Jam ie for the sale of catering equipment. In order to constitute a valid acceptance, there should be an offer and the acceptance should be in response to such an offer. According to this principle, not only should an offer be made but the offer should be in existence at the time when the same has been accepted by the other party. On the other hand, an offer may come to an end in many different ways like revocation, rejection, termination, death and a condition which brings the offer to an end. In this regard, the law provides that the original offer is terminated by a counteroffer made by the other party. Therefore if the party to whom the original offer has been made response by putting forward an alternative proposal, in such a case, it can be considered as a counter offer and the effect of such an offer is that the original offer is terminated. Traditionally, a contractual agreement is analyzed in terms of offer and acceptance. In such a case, an offer is made by one party known as the offeror and the other party, known as the offeree accepts the same and it results in the creation of a legally binding contract. It also needs to be noted in this regard that an offer has to be distinguished from an invitation to treat. At the same time, it is also significant to make a distinction between bilateral and unilateral contracts. The leading case in this regard is that of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co. At the same time, in order to amount to an offer, it is required to be shown that the party making the offer had the intention to be bound by such an offer (Harvey v Facey, 1893). As mentioned above, and offered also needs to be distinguished from an invitation to treat. That main difference between the two is that while on acceptance, an offer results in the creation of a legally binding contract, an invitation to trade cannot b e accepted by the other party to create a contract as it is only an invitation for offers by the other party. In this regard, the law provides that the goods on display in shops are generally not offers but they only amount to an invitation to treat. In such a case, an offer is made by the customer to purchase the goods. It is for the trader to decide whether to accept the offer or not (Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain v Boots, 1953). In the same way, generally advertisements are also considered as invitations to treat (Partridge v Crittenden (1968) 2 All ER 425). However, it needs to be noted that in some cases, an advertisement may also amount to an offer. An example in this regard can be given of the case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball co (1893). An offer can be terminated by the death of the party making the offer or by the death of the party to whom the offer has been made. Similarly, an offer is also terminated by lapse of time. When no time has been prescribed in the offer, the offer terminates after the lapse of reasonable time. However, in what amounts to a reasonable time depends on the circumstances of each case (Ramsgate Victoria Hotel v Montefiore, 1866). In the same way, the law provides that the party making the offer can evoke the same at any time before the offer has been accepted by the other party (Dickinson v Dodds, 1876). In Dickinson v Dodds (1876), a house was offered for sale by Dodds to Dickinson and while making the offer, it was stated that the offer will remain open until 12 June, 9 AM. It was decided by Dickinson to accept the offer on 11 June but Dodds was not informed immediately. Later on, a third-party informed Dickinson that the house has already been sold to someone else. Thereafter, Dickinson tried to accept the offer however Dodds replied that the house has been sold and therefore it was too late. On the other hand, Dickinson claimed that there was a legally binding contract between them as the offer has been accepted by him. In this regard, the court stated that no particular form of revocation is required. The only thing that is required in such a case is that the offeror should convey to the offeree, directly or indirectly, that the offeror had changed his or her mind regarding the offer. Therefore, the court stated that there is no doubt that the same thing has happened in this cas e and Dickinson was aware that Dodds was no longer ready to sell the house. The court also stated that the promised to keep the offer open for a particular period was not supported by any consideration therefore it was not binding on the party making the offer to keep it open for that particular period. However in this regard it needs to be noted that this provision does not apply to the cases involving unilateral offers where the acceptance of the offer needs full performance (Errington v Errington Wood (1952). At the same time, it also needs to be noted that the original offer is terminated when the other party makes a counter offer. A counter offer takes place when the party to whom the offer has been made response by making an offer but on different terms. This results in destroying the original offer and as a result, the party to whom the offer has been made can no longer accept the original offer (Hyde v Wrench, 1840). On the other hand, once valid acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding contract between the parties. As a result, it is significant to know what constitutes a wedding except in so that it can be established if the parties are bound by the agreement or not. There are three main rules related with acceptance. These rules of acceptance provided that (i) the acceptance should be communicated to the offeree (ii) the terms of acceptance should match exactly with the terms of the original offer and (iii) the agreement should be certain. At the same time, the law related with the communication of acceptance provides the general rule that the party making the offer should receive acceptance before it is effective (Entorres v Miles Far East, 1955). At the same time, the law also provides that the silence of the party cannot amount to acceptance of the offer. This rule has been provided by the court in case titled Felthouse v Bindley (1862). However, it has also been provided by t he court in Brogden v. Metropolitan Railway Co. (1877) 2 App. Cas. 666 that acceptance can take place to conduct of the party (Butler Machine Tool v Ex-cell-o Corporation [1979] 1 WLR 401). The facts of the present case are also somewhat similar to that of Dickinson v Dodds (1876). In this case also, the party making the offer had agreed to keep the offer open for a particular number of days. This so-called agreement was nothing more than an offer. It was heard by Dickinson from a third party that Dodds was going to sell the house to someone else and therefore, Dickinson tried to give notice to Dodds regarding his acceptance of the offer. Therefore, it was held by the court that so long as the buyer is aware that the other party wanted to deal somewhere else, the offer has to be considered as revoked. In this regard, it does not matter if the buyer had heard regarding it from the offeror himself or from someone else. At the same time, it was also stated by the court that unless the promise to keep the offer open for a particular period is supported by consideration, the same cannot be considered as binding. On the other hand, if the promise and is supported by considera tion, it is a valid option. When it has been agreed by the parties that post will be used as a means of communication, the postal acceptance rule applies in such a case. According to the postal rule, where a letter has been addressed and stamped properly, the acceptance is purported to have taken place when the letter containing the acceptance has been placed in the post box. This rule was provided by the court in Adams v Lindsell (1818). In the present case, Jamie made an offer to Sonia to sell the catering equipment and at the same time, Jamie also agreed to keep the offer open till Friday. However, instead of accepting the offer straight away, Sonia made the phone call to Jamie in order to ask if she could have two months to pay. As Jamie was not in, Sonia left a message on the answering machine on Wednesday. On the same day, a letter was posted by Jamie in which the informed Sonia that he had sold the catering equipment to his friend. Jamie had not listened to the message left by Sonia on his answering machine. On the other hand, when Sonia did not hear from Jamie, she wrote a letter to Jamie accepting the offer made by him and also sends a check of $5000. The letter was posted by Sonia on Thursday. On Friday, Sonia came to know from Jimmy's wife that the catering equipment had been sold and Jamie had not received the letter containing the acceptance. On the basis of the above mentioned discussion, it can be said in the present case that first of all by making a counteroffer, the original offer made by Jamie has been terminated and it is no longer possible for Sonia to accept the original offer made by Jamie. At the same time, although the postal role provides that the acceptance is considered to have taken place when the letter containing the acceptance has been placed in the post box, however in the present case, the letter along with the object was placed in the post box by Sonia on Thursday while Jamie had already sold the catering equipment to his friend on Wednesday. So far as the promise made by Jamie to keep the offer open till Friday is concerned, this promise was not supported by consideration and therefore was not binding. As a result, it can be set in the present case that Sonia does not have a legally binding contract with Jamie for the sale of catering equipment as Jamie was not bound by the promise to keep the offer open because it was not supported by consideration and at the same time, due to the reason that a counteroffer has been made by Sonia. Therefore, as the equipment was already sold by Jamie on Wednesday, Sonia cannot accept the offer made by Jamie on Thursday. Question2: Write a brief analysis reflecting on how preparing and completing this assignment has contributed to the development of your skills as a learner. Answer2: While preparing and completing this assignment, I was able to develop my skills as a learner as this assignment helped me increase my knowledge regarding the various aspects of the law of contract, particularly offer and acceptance, the postal acceptance rule, and what the law provides regarding the promise made by the offeror to keep the offer open for a particular time. At the same time, this assignment also increased my analytical skills and allowed me to apply knowledge to the facts of the given case. References Adams v Lindsell (1818) 106 ER 250 Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball co [1893] 1 QB 256 Dickinson v Dodds (1876) 2 Ch. D. 463 Entorres v Miles Far East [1955] 2 QB 327 Errington v Errington Wood [1952] 1 KB 290 Felthouse v Bindley [1862] EWHC CP J35 Harvey v Facey [1893] UKPC 1 Hyde v Wrench (1840) 49 ER 132 Ramsgate Victoria Hotel v Montefiore (1866) LR 1 Ex 109